Fall of the Roman Republic 78-31 BC & Julius Caesar



- Syllabus Content - Assessment - Past Questions - Glossary of Terms - Glossary of People - Maps -


Glossary of People

This glossary is taken from Cicero - Selected Letters, D.R. Shackleton



  • ‘Nobles’ are marked with an asterisk.

A. = Aulus
Ap(p). = Appius
C. = Gaius
Cn. = Gnaeus
D. = Decimus
L. = Lucius
M. = Marcus
M’. = Manius
N. = Numerius
P. = Publius
Q. = Quintus
Ser. = Servius
Sex. = Sextus
Sp. = Spurius
T. = Titus
Ti. = Tiberius

*M'. AEMILIUS Lepidus: Consul in 66. Seems to have died in Italy during the Civil War.

*M. AEMILIUS Lepidus: Consul in 46, Magister Equitum in 44 and one of Caesar's leading followers. After Caesar's death succeeded him as Pontifex Maximus and became governor of Narbonese Gaul and Hither Spain in 44-43. Joined Antony and became Triumvir, Consul again in 42, and governor of Africa in 40-36. Forced by Octavian to retire from public life.

*M. AEMILIUS Scaurus: (1) Consul in 115 and Leader of the Senate. *(2) His son, Praetor in 56. As candidate for the Consulship in 54 was successfully defended by Cicero on a charge of extortion in his province (Sardinia), but found guilty in a second trial for bribery (Cicero still defending) and disappeared into exile.

L. AFRANIUS (nicknamed 'Aulus’ son'): Lieutenant of Pompey, who 'bought' him the Consulship of 60. Later governed Further Spain as Pompey's Legate and fought on his side in the Civil War. Perished in Africa after Caesar's victory in 46.

T. AMPIUS BALBUS: Praetor in 59 and governor of Asia the following year, then transferred to Cilicia. Henchman of Pompey and friend of Cicero, who probably obtained permission for him to return to Italy in 46.

C. ANICIUS: Senator and friend of Cicero.

T. ANNIUS MILO: As Tribune in 57 stoutly championed Cicero's recall and raised armed bands against Clodius. Candidate for the Consulship in 53, was condemned after Clodius' murder in January 52 and retired to Massilia. In 48 returned to Italy to take part in Caelius Rufus' rising and was killed.

*C. ANTONIUS: (1) Cicero’s colleague in the Consulship of 63, having previously been expelled from the Senate for rapacity and insolvency. Governor of Macedonia in 62‑60. Condemned after his return to Rome, went into exile but lived to become Censor (!) in 42. Mark Antony was his nephew. *(2) Brother of Mark Antony. A Caesarian officer in the Civil War, became Praetor in 44. Captured in 42 by Brutus in Greece and later executed.

*L. ANTONIUS: Youngest brother of Mark Antony. Quaestor in 50 to Q. Minucius Thermus in Asia, Tribune in 44, and Consul in 41, when he and Antony's wife Fulvia started an unsuccessful war against Octavian in Italy. His life was spared but probably ended soon afterwards.

M. ANTONIUS: (1) Grandfather of Mark Antony, Consul in 99, and a cele­brated orator. *(2) Mark Antony. Caesar's Quaestor in 52 and one of his principal lieutenants in the Civil War.Tribune in 49. Consul with Caesar in 44 and would‑be successor to his power, he eventually formed the Triumvirate of 43 along with Octavian and Lepidus. Later quarrelled with Octavian and committed suicide after defeat at Actium (31).

ARIOBARZANES III: Succeeded his murdered father as King of Cappadocia in 52. Killed by Cassius' orders in 42.

Q. ARRIUS: Henchman of M. Crassus. He seems to have been exiled in 52 and dead by 46.

ARTAVASDES: King of Armenia. Dethroned by Antony in 34 and subsequently executed.

C. ASINIUS POLLIO: Born about 76, Praetor in 45, Consul in 40. Soldier, orator, tragic dramatist, and historian. Governor of Further Spain at the time of Caesar's death, he joined Antony in 43 and remained his supporter, but lived on under Augustus until A.D. 5.

P. AUTRONIUS PAETUS. Elected Consul in 66 but deprived of office by a conviction for bribery. Condemned in 62 for complicity with Catiline,

Q. CAECILIUS BASSUS: Former Pompeian who raised a mutiny in 46 against Caesar's governor of Syria and took command of his troops.

C. CAECILIUS CORNUTUS: (1) Tribune in 61 and Praetor in 57, when he supported Cicero's recall. (2) Perhaps son of the foregoing, City Praetor in 43. Committed suicide when Octavian seized Rome.

*Q. CAECILIUS METELLUS CELER: As Praetor in 63 cooperated with Cicero against Catiline. Governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 62, Consul in 60. Died in 59. His wife was the notorious Clodia ('Ox-Eyes').

*Q. CAECILIUS METELLUS NEPOS: Younger brother of Celer. Served with Pompey in the East. As Tribune in 62 agitated against Cicero and was suspended from office. Consul in 57 and then governor of Hither Spain. Celer and Nepos were P. Clodius' half-brothers.

*Q. CAECILIUS METELLUS NUMIDICUS: Consul in 109. In 100 he went into voluntary exile rather than swear an oath to uphold legislation by the demagogue Saturninus, and was brought back the following year.

*Q. CAECILIUS METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO: A Scipio Nasica adopted by a Metellus (Numidicus' son), 'vaunting an unmatched pedigree, yet ignorant as well as unworthy of his ancestors, corrupt and debauched in the way of his life' (R. Syme). Became Pompey's father-in-law and colleague in the Consulship of 52. After Pompey's death led the Republican forces in Africa and committed suicide after Thapsus.

M. CAELIUS RUFUS: Born c. 88. Placed by his father under Cicero's patronage and successfully defended by him on a criminal charge in 56. Tribune in 52, Curule Aedile in 50. One of the leading speakers of his time. Previously an opponent of Caesar, he changed sides just before the outbreak of the Civil War and was made Praetor in 48. As such started an agitation in favour of debtors ending in an attempted rising against Caesar in which he and his partner Milo lost their lives.

M. CALIDIUS: Distinguished orator. As Praetor in 57 supported Cicero's recall. A Caesarian in the Civil War, he died as governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 47.

*L. CALPURNIUS BESTIA: (i) Tribune in 62 and enemy of Cicero. *(2) Friend of Cicero, defended by him in 56.

*L. CALPURNIUS BIBULUS: Son of the following. Joined his step-father Brutus in 43 but after Philippi served Antony, dying as governor of Syria in 32.

*M. CALPURNIUS BIBULUS: As Consul in 59 opposed Caesar's legislation, shutting himself in his house and 'watching the skies'. Governor of Syria in 51-50. Died of overstrain while commanding Pompey's fleet in 48. Married Cato's daughter Porcia, later wife of Brutus.

*C. CALPURNIUS PISO: Consul in 67, then governor of Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul. Defended by Cicero on a charge brought in this connection in 63.

*L. CALPURNIUS PISO CAESONINUS: Consul in 58, when he took a line unfriendly to Cicero. Hence a bitter attack (extant) in 55. As Censor in 50 tried to moderate his colleague Appius Pulcher's harsh measures. Neutral in the Civil War (Caesar was his son-in-law), he opposed Antony in 44 but in 43 tried to promote an understanding.

*C. CALPURNIUS PISO FRUGI: Tullia's first husband. Quaestor in 58, he died before Cicero’s return from exile.

P. CANIDIUS CRASSUS: Consul-Suffect in 40. Commanded Antony's land forces at Actium and was executed by Octavian.

L. CANINIUS GALLUS: Friend of Cicero, who defended him in 55. As Tribune in 56 he worked for Pompey's appointment to replace Ptolemy the Piper on his throne. Died in 44.

Ti. CANNUTIUS: As Tribune in 43 bitterly hostile to Antony. Escaped proscription, but was later executed by Octavian.

*C. CASSIUS LONGINUS: As Quaestor took charge of Syria after Crassus' death at Carrhae in 53. Gained a success against invading Parthians in 51. As Tribune in 49 joined Pompey. Pardoned and favoured by Caesar, he became Praetor in 44 and one of the leading conspirators against Caesar's life. Subsequently organized forces against the Triumvirs in the East and perished with Brutus at Philippi in 42.

*L. CASSIUS LONGINUS: Brother of the above but a Caesarian, Tribune in 44.

*Q. CASSIUS LONGINUS: Cousin of the foregoing. Formerly a favourite with Pompey, as Tribune in 49 he supported Caesar. His misgovernment of Hither Spain (49-47) provoked mutiny and his attempted assassination. Recalled by Caesar, he died at sea.

*C. CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS: (1) Praetor in 8o. *(2) Son of the foregoing. As Consul in 50 in opposition to Caesar, but neutral in the Civil War. Married Caesar's great‑niece Octavia. *(3) Cousin of the fore­going and Consul in 49. A naval commander under Pompey in 48, he seems to have died before Pharsalia.

*M. CL AUDIUS MARCELLUS: Brother of Gaius (no. 3), Consul in 51. A steady though not fanatical opponent of Caesar, he joined Pompey in the war but retired to Mytilene after Pharsalia. Publicly pardoned by Caesar in 46 (hence Cicero's extant speech of gratitude), he was murdered by a friend on his way home.

*Ti. CLAUDIUS NERO: One of Tullia's suitors in 50, he served and held office under Caesar. Praetor in 42, died after various vicissitudes about 35. His wife Livia married Octavian, his son became Octavian's (Augustus') successor, the Emperor Tiberius.

*Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER: As Praetor in 57 at enmity with Cicero but later reconciled. Consul in 54, he became Cicero's predecessor as governor of Cilicia. Censor in 50. Supported Pompey in the Civil War, but died before Pharsalia. One of his daughters married Pompey's elder son, another M. Brutus.

*CLODIA (CLAUDIA, 'Ox‑Eyes'): Sister to P. Claudius Pulcher (CLODIUS, below) and wife of Metellus Celer; probably the 'Lesbia' to whom Catullus wrote his love‑poems. Perhaps owner of a suburban property which Cicero wanted to buy in 45. The Clodia mentioned in Letters to Atticus 17 2 (ix. 6).3 may have been her sister.

*P. CLODIUS PULCHER: Younger brother of Appius and Gaius. As Tribune in 58 drove Cicero into exile and remained his arch‑enemy. From then until his death in an affray with Milo in 52 he was a power in politics through his popularity with the Roman mob and organized street‑rowdyism. Often called Publius or Pulchellus ('Little Beauty', 'Pretty‑boy') in Cicero's letters.

*C. COELIUS CALDUS: Quaestor to Cicero in 50 and left by him in charge of Cilicia.


L. CORNELIUS BALBUS: (1) Native of Gades (Cadiz), received Roman citizen­ship in 72 through L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus. Attached himself to Caesar, becoming his confidential agent and financial adviser, and later to Octavian. Appointed Consul‑Suffect in 40, not having held (at least until Caesar's death) any previous magistracy. Present at Atticus' death‑bed in 32. (2) Nephew of the foregoing. In Caesar's entourage during the Civil War, he became Quaestor in 44, serving under Pollio in Spain. Rose to Consular rank under Augustus and triumphed in 19.

*L. CORNELIUS CINNA: Consul in 87. Expelled from Rome he reestablished himself by military force and after Marius' death remained at the head of affairs until his own death in 84.

*P. CORNELIUS DOLABELLA (after adoption Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Dola­bella?): Defended by Cicero, on two capital charges, he married Tullia in 50, but was divorced in 46. A favoured follower of Caesar (despite demagogic activities as Tribune in 47), whom he succeeded as Consul in 44. After some wavering joined Antony and left for his province of Syria late in the year. On the way killed C. Trebonius, governor of Asia and one of Caesar's assassins. Soon afterwards committed suicide to avoid capture by Cassius.

*L. CORNELIUS LENTULUS CRUS: Praetor in 58 (friendly to Cicero), Consul in 49. After Pharsalia fled to Egypt, where he was murdered in prison.

*Cn. CORNELIUS LENTULUS MARCELLINUS: Consul in 56. Not heard of there­after.

*P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS SPINTHER: (1) As Consul in 57 took a leading part in Cicero's restoration. Governor of Cilicia 56‑54. Supported Pompey in the Civil War. Taken prisoner by Caesar at Corfinium and released, he joined Pompey in Greece. Put to death in Africa in 46, perhaps by Caesar's orders. The name Spinther, derived from an actor who resembled him, is used by Cicero only for his son. *(2) Son of the foregoing. Falsely claimed to have taken part in Caesar's murder. Went to Asia in 43 as Quaestor to Trebonius, after whose death he was active in support of Brutus and Cassius. Probably put to death after Philippi.

*Faustus CORNELIUS SULLA: Son of the Dictator. Served with distinction in the East under Pompey, whose daughter he married. Active Republican in the Civil War, killed in Africa.

T. CORNELIUS SULLA: (1) Nephew of the Dictator. Elected to the Consul­ship in 66 along with P. Autronius and deprived of office for the same reason, he retired to Naples. Defended in 62 by Cicero in an extant speech on a charge of complicity in Catiline's plot. Prominent after Caesar's victory, he enriched himself by buying confiscated property. Died in 46. *(2) Son of the foregoing. It was probably he rather than his father who held military commands in the Civil War, including that of Caesar's right at Pharsalia.

*L. CORNELIUS SULLA FELIX: The Dictator. Held supreme power in Rome from 82 till his abdication in 79. Died in 78.

Q. CORNIFICIUS: (1) Praetor in 67 or 66 and a fellow‑candidate with Cicero for the Consulship of 63. (2) Son of the above. Quaestor in 48, he served Caesar in and after the Civil War. Governor of Africa 44‑42, until defeated and killed by the neighbouring governor, T. Sextius. A notable orator and poet, friend and correspondent of Cicero.

CRASSUS: See LICINIUS.

CURIO: See SCRIBONIUS.

DECIMUS: See JUNIUS.

DEIOTARUS: Tetrarch of part of Galatia, made king by Pompey, whom he supported in the Civil War. Caesar let him keep his throne and acquit­ted him on a charge of attempted assassination (Cicero's defence is extant). Died about 40 in extreme old age. His son and namesake, also given the royal title by the Senate, probably pre‑deceased him.

DOLABELLA: See CORNELIUS.

*L. DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS: Cato's brother‑in‑law and bitter opponent of Caesar. Captured at Corfinium in 49 and released, he stood siege in Massilia but fled before the town fell to Caesar's forces. Commanded Pompey's left at Pharsalia and was killed in flight.

*Cn. DOMITIUS CALVINUS: Consul in 53. Probably condemned for bribery and restored from exile by Caesar. Held high commands in the war, and a second Consulship and Triumph after Caesar's death.

DRUSUS: See Livius.

T. FADIUS: Cicero's Quaestor in 63, Tribune in 57 (supported Cicero's recall), probably Praetor in a later year. Condemned for bribery in 52.

M. FAVONIUS: Follower of Cato. Fled from Pharsalia with Pompey. Later pardoned by Caesar, but proscribed in 43 and put to death at Philippi.

L. FLAVIUS: As Tribune in 60 acted in Pompey's interest. Praetor in 58.

Q. FUFIUS CALENUS: Tribune in 61, Praetor in 59. Served under Caesar in Gaul and the Civil War. Governor of Greece in 48, Consul in 47. After Caesar’s death supported Antony in Rome. Disliked by Cicero who had known and supported his father.

*FULVIA: Wife of P. Crassus, Curio and Antony.

C. FURNIUS: Friend of Cicero, Tribune in 50. A Caesarian, he served as Munatius Plancus’ Legate in 43 and later supported Mark Antony and his brother Lucius. Pardoned and dignified by Octavian, he lived to see his son Consul in 17.

A. GABINIUS: Military lieutenant and political supporter of Pompey. As Consul in 58 backed Clodius against Cicero. As governor of Syria restored Ptolemy Auletes to his throne in 55. Went into exile in 54 after conviction on charges of extortion. Reappears as Caesar’s Legate in 48. Died in 47.

GELLIUS POPLICOLA: Brother of L. Gellius Poplicola, Consul in 72, and a follower of Clodius.

A. HIRTIUS: Caesarian officer, Praetor in 46 and Consul in 43 until his death at Mutina. Man of letters and gourmet. Nine or more books of his correspondence with Cicero were extant in antiquity.

*Q HORTENSIUS HORRTALUS: (1) Consul in 69 and before Cicero Rome's leading forensic orator. A devoted friend of Atticus, his relations with Cicero varied. Died in 50. *(2) Son of the foregoing and on bad terms with him. Joined Caesar in the Civil War, who made him Praetor and governor of Macedonia. Joined Brutus in 43. Put to death after Philippi by Antony in reprisal for the execution of his brother Gaius.

*C. JULIUS CAESAR: The Dictator.

*L. JULIUS CAESAR: (1) Distant relative of the above. Consul in 64 and Legate in Gaul, he stood neutral in the Civil War. Proscribed in 43, he was saved by his sister, Antony's mother Julia. *(2) Son of the above. After acting as messenger in abortive peace negotiations early in the Civil War he joined Pompey. Killed after Thapsus, perhaps at Caesar's orders.

*C. JULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS: Caesar's great‑nephew and adopted son. Later Triumvir and Emperor Augustus.


*JUNIA: Half‑sister of Brutus and wife of Lepidus.

*JUNIA Tertia (or Tertulla): Sister of the above and wife of C. Cassius. Her funeral in A.D. 22 is described by Tacitus.

L. JUNIUS BRUTUS: Rome's first Consul, who drove out the last king, Tarquin the Proud.

*M. JUNIUS BRUTUS: Sometimes called (Q. Servilius) Caepio (Brutus) after adoption by his uncle Q. Servilius Caepio. Leader of the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar; committed suicide after Philippi.

*D. JUNIUS BRUTUS ALBINUS: Not closely related to the above. Served under Caesar in Gaul and the Civil War, governor of Transalpine Gaul in 48‑46. Regarded by Caesar with special favour and named as Consul for 42 along with L. Plancus, he became a leading conspirator against his life. Later besieged by Antony at Mutina in his province of Cisalpine Gaul, after Antony's defeat and escape he too crossed the Alps to join Plancus. When the latter went over to Antony he fled, but was killed by a Celtic chieftain on Antony's orders.

*D. JUNIUS SILANUS: Consul in 62. Married Brutus' mother Servilia by whom he had three daughters (see JUNIA).

*M. JUNIUS SILANUS: Officer of Lepidus in 43, who (probably) sent him to Antony at Mutina but later disavowed him. Consul in 25.

*M. JUVENTIUS LATERENSIS: Praetor in 51. As Lepidus' Legate, killed him­self when his chief joined Antony.

T. LABIENUS: Tribune in 63. Caesar's principal lieutenant in Gaul, but deserted him at the outbreak of the Civil War and fought against him to the end. Killed at Munda.

LEPIDUS: See AEMILIUS.

*M. LICINIUS CRASSUS: Consul in 70 and 55. Joined Pompey and Caesar in 60 to form the so-called First Triumvirate. Left for Syria late in 55. Defeated and killed at Carrhae in 53 leading an invasion of Parthia.

*P. LICINIUS CRASSUS: Son of the ‘Triumvir’. Much attached to Cicero in his early days, he served brilliantly under Caesar in Gaul. Went out to Syria with his father and was killed at Carrhae. In the Brutus Cicero seems to blame him for the disaster.

*L. LICINIUS LUCULLUS: Lieutenant of Sulla and Consul in 74. In 73-66 waged a brilliant series of campaigns against King Mithridates of Pontus, ending ingloriously through disaffection in his army. After supersession by Pompey returned to Rome to live in ease and luxury until his death in 56.

*M. LICINIUS LUCULLUS: See TERENTIUS.

*M. LIVIUS DRUSUS CLAUDIANUS: Father of Augustus' wife Livia, originally a Claudius Pulcher. Successfully defended by Cicero in 54. Praetor or President of Court in 50. Owner of suburban estate coveted by Cicero in 45. Killed himself in his tent at Philippi.

M. LOLLIUS PALICANUS: Tribune in 71. Mob orator and agitator against the post‑Sullan regime.

L. LUCCEIUS (son of Quintus): Praetor in 67 and unsuccessful candidate for the Consulship in 60. On amicable terms with Cicero, he remained one of Pompey's most intimate friends until Pharsalia. Pardoned by Caesar, he may have died in the proscriptions of 43. Cicero admired his historical work, which was perhaps never published.

C. LUCILIUS HIRRUS: Great‑nephew (probably) of the above and cousin to Pompey. Tribune in 53, he annoyed Cicero by standing against him for the Augurate. Defeated in 51 in his candidature for the Aedileship. Followed Pompey in the Civil War but survived to lend Caesar 6,000 fish for his triumphal banquet in 45 and flee proscription in 43‑42. A great land‑owner and in Cicero's opinion an egregious ass.

LUCULLUS: See LICINIUS.

*Q. LUTATIUS CATULUS: (1) Colleague of Marius as Consul in 102, killed by his orders in 87. *(2) Son of the foregoing. Consul in 78 and leading conservative figure until his death in 61 or 60.

P. MAGIUS CILO: Friend and murderer of M. Marcellus.

*A. MANLIUS TORQUATUS: Praetor perhaps in 70 and friend of Cicero, who tried through Dolabella to get Caesar's permission for him, as an ex‑Pompeian living in Athens, to return to Italy. After Caesar's death an active republican, he was befriended by his old friend Atticus after Philippi.

*L. MARCIUS PHILIPPUS: (1) Consul in 91. Censor under Cinna's regime, but joined Sulla when he returned to Italy. *(2) Son of the foregoing. Consul in 56. Husband of Caesar's niece and Cato's father‑in‑law, he took no part in the Civil War. Counselled caution to his stepson Octavian in 44. A moderating influence in the struggle between the Senate and Antony.

C. MARIUS: Of Arpinum. Great general, seven times Consul, destroyer of invading northern tribes. Driven into exile by Sulla in 88, returned to Rome by force in 87 and killed off numbers of opponents before his own death early the following year.

L. MESCINIUS RUFUS: Cicero's Quaestor in Cilicia. Seems to have joined Pompey in the Civil War but was allowed to return to Italy in 46.

C. MESSIUS: Pro‑Ciceronian Tribune in 57 and adherent of Pompey; but in 46 Legate to Caesar in Africa.

METELLUS: See CAECILIUS.

MILO: See ANNIUS.

L. MINUCIUS BASILUS: Legate of Caesar in Gaul and the Civil War and Praetor in 45, joined the conspiracy in 44. Murdered by his slaves the following year. A friend of Cicero.

*Q. MINUCIUS THERMUS: Governor of Asia in 51‑50. A Pompeian in the Civil War and proscribed in 43, he escaped to join Sex. Pompeius and then Antony.

*Q MUCIUS SCAEVOLA: Pontifex Maximus. Consul in 95. A great jurist and a model governor of Asia, well known to Cicero until his murder by the Marians in 82.

L. MUNATIUS PLANCUS: Family friend of Cicero. Served under Caesar in Gaul and the Civil War. City Prefect during Caesar's absence in 46‑45. As governor of Transalpine Gaul (except the Narbonensis), he finally joined Antony in 43. Consul in 42. Changed sides again before Actium and became Censor in 22.

T. MUNATIUS PLANCUS BURSA: Brother of the above. Tribune in 52 and follower of Clodius, he was successfully prosecuted by Cicero as a ringleader in the riots following Clodius' death. In exile joined Caesar, who brought him back in 49. Later an active supporter of Antony.

SERVIUS OCELLA: Subject of a Roman scandal in 50.

OCTAVIANUS or OCTAVIUS: See JULIUS.

PHARNACES: Son of Mithridates the Great of Pontus and King of Bosporus. Recovered his father's kingdom in 48 and defeated Caesar's lieutenant, Domitius Calvinus. Caesar ‘came, saw, and conquered’ him the following year.

*Cn. POMPEIUS MAGNUS: (1) Pompey the Great. *(2) Elder son of the fore­going, killed in Spain after the battle of Munda.

*Sex. POMPEIUS MAGNUS: Younger son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's death revived the war in Spain, then came to terms with Lepidus. Eventually gained control of Sicily and was a thorn in Octavian's flesh until defeated in 36. Fled to the East and after further adventures was captured and executed by an officer of Antony's.

*Q. POMPEIUS RUFUS: Sulla's grandson, but an associate of P. Clodius, condemned for his part as Tribune in 52 in the riots following Clodius' murder. His prosecutor was Caelius Rufus, who later befriended him when he was living in poverty in Bauli.

C. POMPTINUS: Praetor in 63, then governor of Narbonese Gaul where he crushed a tribal revolt. Finally granted a Triumph in 54. Legate to Cicero in Cilicia.

PONTIUS AQUILA: Tribune in 45 and assassin of Caesar. Legate to D. Brutus in 43. Killed at Mutina.

*PORCIA: (1) Cato's sister, wife of L. Domitius Ahenobarbus. Died in 45. (2), Cato's daughter, married first to M. Bibulus, then to M. Brutus. Died, allegedly by suicide, in 43.

*C. PORCIUS CATO: As Tribune in 56 at first opposed, then supported Pompey (perhaps leagued with Crassus). Tried and acquitted in 54.

*M. PORCIUS CATO: (1) 'Of Utica'. Leader of conservative opposition to the 'First Triumvirate'. Later made common cause with Pompey against Caesar, and after Pompey's death became the life and soul of con­tinuing resistance. Committed suicide at Utica after the republican defeat in 46. Family connections included Servilia. (half‑sister), her son Brutus, M. Bibulus, L. Domitius, and Hortensius. *(2) Son of the foregoing, who left Cicero and Atticus as his guardians. Killed at Philippi.

PTOLEMY XII: Called 'The Piper' (Auletes), King of Egypt. Driven out by his subjects in 58, restored by Gabinius in 55, died in 51.

PUBLILIUS: Relative, probably brother, of the above.

*T. (?) RUFRENUS: Officer in Lepidus' army in 43. Apparently Tribune the following year.

T. RUTILIUS LUPUS: Tribune and supporter of Pompey in 56. Praetor in 49. Served under Pompey in Greece in 48.

*C. SCRIBONIUS CURIO: (1) Consul in 76, notable general and orator. Died in 53. *(2) His son, Cicero's friend and correspondent. After some variations appeared as Tribune in 50 in the role of a fervent optimate, but suddenly went over to Caesar, allegedly for a vast bribe. Led expedition to Africa in 49, where he was defeated and killed.

*L. SERGIUS CATILINA: Cicero's rival for the Consulship in 64. Plotted a coup d’état in 63. Killed in battle the following year.

*SERVILIA: Mother of M. Brutus, half‑sister of Cato, allegedly mistress of Caesar, and close friend of Atticus.

*P. SERVILIUS ISAURICUS: Earlier an associate of Cato and married to his niece, he joined Caesar in the Civil War and became Consul in 48. Governor of Asia 46‑44. Moderate opponent of Antony after Caesar's death, but later reconciled. Consul again in 41.

P. SESTIUS: Quaestor in MacedEnia in 62. As tribune in 57 took a leading part in promoting Cicero's recall. Defended on charges in this con­nection by Cicero in 56 (speech extant). Later Praetor and Cicero's successor as governor of Cilicia in 49. Went over to Caesar after Pharsalia. Supported Cicero in 43, but kept his life and status in the thirties. A notoriously wearisome speaker.

SPURINNA: Haruspex (diviner from entrails). Warned Caesar that his life was in danger before his assassination.

SULLA: See CORNELIUS.

*Ser. SULPICIUS GALBA: Legate to C. Pomptinus, then to Caesar in Gaul. Praetor in 54. Supported Caesar in the Civil War and joined the conspiracy in 44. Fought under Pansa at the battle of Forum Gallorum. Probably killed in 43.

*Ser. SULPICIUS RUFUS: (1) Friend and contemporary of Cicero's and one of the most famous of Roman jurists. Consul in 51, he worked to avoid the coming clash with Caesar, but in 49 after initial wavering joined Pompey (the common view that he remained neutral is mistaken). After Pharsalia he retired to Samos, but was appointed governor of Achaia by Caesar in 46. Died in 43 on a mission to Antony. *(2) His son. Joined Caesar's army at Brundisium in March 49, but further part in the war is unknown. After Caesar's death a republican and probably a victim of the Proscriptions.

TERENTIA: Cicero's wife from about 8o to 46.

Q. TERENTIUS CULLEO: Tribune in 58 and friend of Pompey.

P. TERENTIUS HISPO: Friend of Cicero, worked for a tax‑farming company (or companies) in Asia and Bithynia.
M. TERENTIUS VARRO: Of Reate, the most learned and prolific author of his time. Born in 116. After a distinguished military and political career under Pompey's aegis, he gave up the republican cause after Pharsalia and became head of Caesar's new library. Narrowly escaping proscription in 43 he lived till 27 in tireless literary activity. Of his vast and varied output only a small part, and perhaps the least interesting, survives apart from fragments.

*M. TERENTIUS VARRO LUCULLUS: Brother by birth of L. Lucullus and an almost equally distinguished soldier. Consul in 73. Triumphed for victories in the Balkans. Died not long after Lucius.

*A. TERENTIUS VARRO MURENA: Friend of Cicero and Ap. Pulcher.

P. TITIUS: Tribune in 43 and proposer of the law, establishing the Triumvirate. Died in office.

C. TREBONIUS: Tribune in 55, put through a law extending Caesar's term of command. Legate to Caesar in Gallic and Civil Wars and Praetor in 48. Governor of Further Spain 47‑46. Consul‑Suffect 45. Joined the conspiracy in 44. Brutally murdered by Dolabella shortly after his arrival in Asia as governor. Friend and correspondent of Cicero.

*TULLIA: Cicero's daughter. Died February 4 5.

M. TULLIUS CICERO: (1) The orator. *(2) His son.

*M. VALERIUS MESSALLA NIGER: As Consul in 61 took and optimate line, but later a supporter of Pompey. Censor in 55‑54, apparently died shortly before the Civil War.

*M. VALERIUS MESSALLA RUFUS: Brother‑in‑law to Sulla and Hortensius' nephew, friend of Atticus and Cicero. Consul in 53, later condemned for electoral malpractice and rehabilitated by Caesar. After Caesar's death lived in scholarly retirement to an advanced age. Wrote on augury.

VARRO: See TERENTIUS

P. VATINIUS: Tribune in 59, carried through legislation on Caesar's behalf. Praetor in 55, Consul in 47, governor of Illyricum, triumphed in 42. Cicero attacked him in an extant speech, but in 54 became reconciled under pressure and defended him in court. From then on they remained on good terms.

L. VETTIUS: Roman Knight from Picenum, who turned informer against his Catilinarian associates in 63‑62 and was prosecuted and imprisoned for making false charges against Caesar. Revealed or fabricated a plot against Pompey's life in 59. Died mysteriously in prison.


C. VIBIUS PANSA CAETRONIANUS: Son of one of Sulla's victims, served under Caesar in Gaul. Tribune in 51. Governed Bithynia and Cisalpine Gaul under Caesar. Consul in 43, died of wounds received in the battle of Forum Gallorum.

L. VULCATIUS (or VOLCACIUS) TULLUS: Consul in 66. In and after the Civil War his political moderation seems to have turned into subservience to Caesar.