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Sunday, April 22

  1. page JC12 Political and Social edited Julius Caesar - Syllabus Syllabus Content - Assessment Assessment - Past Overview of …

    Julius Caesar
    - SyllabusSyllabus Content - AssessmentAssessment - Past
    Overview of Roman political and social structures
    REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT
    (Also see your handouts on the magistracies and the cursus honorum.)
    {SPQR.jpg}
    SPQR
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    The Senate and the People of Rome
    The Senate
    Let us consider now the Senate. The body has control of the treasury and regulates the flow of all revenue and expenditure; the quaestors require a decree of the Senate to enable them to authorise expenditure on any given project, with the exception only of payments made to the consuls. The Senate also controls what is by far the largest and most important item of expenditure - that is, the programme which is laid down by the censors every five years to provide for the repair and construction of public buildings - and it makes a grant to the censors for this purpose. Similarly any crimes committed in Italy which require a public investigation such as treason, conspiracy, poisoning and assassination, also come under the jurisdiction of the Senate... It is also responsible for dispatching embassies or commissions to countries outside Italy, either to settle differences, or to offer advice, to impose demands, to receive submissions, or to declare war; in the same way whenever any delegations arrive in Rome, it decides how they should be received and what answer should be given to them.
    - Polybius VI:13
    Power in Rome was vested in the people through the various assemblies. The
    The Senate was
    There were originally 100, later 300 members of the Senate (600 after 80 BC).
    They were drawn from the patrician class.
    ...
    Had the power to veto actions of the assembly if it acted against the Senate’s advice.
    Assemblies
    Power in Rome was vested in the people through the various assemblies.
    Comitia - a meeting of the whole citizen body - patricians and plebeians.
    Curiate Assembly (comitia curiata): began during the period of the kings. Rome divided into parishes (curiae) and people voted according to the parish in which they lived.
    ElectedDuring the consuls.Regal period had appointed the kings.
    • Voted on any issues put to it by the consuls. Could not raise or discuss any issues.
    Comitia centuriata: Could be summoned only by a magistrate with imperium and met outside the city on the Campus Martius because it was originally a military assembly.
    ...
    • Issued resolutions binding on all citizens after 287 BC
    • May have elected tribunes and plebeians aediles
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Roman_constitution.svg/1000px-Roman_constitution.svg.png}
    Magistracies
    A magistrate is an elected government official.
    The Cursus Honorum
    Aspiring politicians were expected to proceed up the ladder.
    This was formalised by the lex Villia Annalis (180 BC).
    At least ten years military experience before starting political career.
    Two-year interval between holding consecutive offices.
    Ten-year interval between holding the same office.
    Minimum age for holding office:
    Quaestor - 27 (increased to 30 in 1st C.)
    Praetor - 33 (increased to 39 in 1st C.)
    Consul - 36 (increased to 42 in 1st C.)
    The purpose of this system was so that no individual could gain too much power and that power was shared among the senatorial families.
    The senatorial class was prevented from engaging in commercial activity by the Claudian law (218 BC). A political career was the only alternative for an ambitious young Patrician.
    For success in a political career a young man needed a distinguished family background, wealth and important connections.
    Novus Homo
    Sometimes a man without the right family background could rise through his military brilliance - but he still needed the patronage of senatorial families.
    Wealth
    It was very expensive to run for office. The position of aedile required a great amount of wealth to finance the games and festivals. A political career could only be followed by wealthy individuals, or poor patricians who could borrow from equites.
    After being consul, one could expect to be made governor of a colony which was very lucrative.
    Promagistracies
    An extension of the imperium of a consul or praetor (proconsul or propraetor)
    Imperium
    Supreme authority (including command in war and right to exercise the death penalty)
    Potestas
    Power of the magistrates to enforce the law
    Nobiles
    Inner circle of wealthy Patrician familes. Also some wealthy Plebeians could be Nobiles.
    Equites
    (also known at Equestrian order; Knights)
    Wealthy non-senators; upper middle class. This is the class from which a Novus Homo would come.
    Optimates
    Conservative senators – wanted to maintain strict senatorial control of government.
    Populares
    Senators who appealed to people and tribunes to gain support.

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    12:03 am

Thursday, April 19

  1. page Archaeologists edited ... Reconstructed facades and windows, balconies and roofs of upper floors. Occasionally dug past…
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    Reconstructed facades and windows, balconies and roofs of upper floors.
    Occasionally dug past the façade - e.g., Cryptoporticus and Octavius Quartio.
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    the Schola Armaturum.Armaturarum.
    The picture shows Spinazzola entertaining friends in the triclinium of the House of the Moralist.
    Below is a reconstruction of part of the via dell'Abbondanza from Spinazzola's posthumously published book on his work in Pompeii, Pompeii alla luce degli scavi nuovi di Via dell'Abbondanza (anni 1910-1923)
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    1:16 am

Wednesday, April 18

  1. page home edited ... The Fall of the Roman Republic Julius Caesar Alexander the Great exhibition at Australian M…
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    The Fall of the Roman Republic
    Julius Caesar
    Alexander the Great exhibition at Australian Museum
    Here's a video about a mean kitty called Sparta!
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    5:55 pm

Monday, February 27

  1. page Sparta51 edited Sparta Society to the Battle of Leuctra, 371 BC ... Content - Map - Past Map - Past Q…

    Sparta Society to the Battle of Leuctra, 371 BC
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    Content -
    Map
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    Past
    Map - Past Questions
    -
    -
    Art: sculpture, painted vases, bone and ivory carving
    See text: pp.92-104
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    8:01 pm

Thursday, February 9

  1. page Sparta26 edited ... freedom was offered to those helots able to reach the island of Sphakteria off Pylas; with foo…
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    freedom was offered to those helots able to reach the island of Sphakteria off Pylas; with food
    in the poloponnesian war, spartans used helots as soldiers
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    sent to sicilySicily in 413BC
    the hope of eventual freedom was a motivating factor for the helots
    Helots were sometimes rewarded with their freedom (Thuc. 5.34) "The Spartans decreed that the helots who had fought with Brasidas should be given their freedom and allowed to live wherever they liked, and not long afterwards they settled them with the already freed helots at Lepreum...". The possibility of freedom may have motivated the helots to remain loyal.
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    The helots were enslaved and their lands seized during the First Messenian War (c.735-716 BC)
    The Messenians revolted and were suppressed by the military during the Second Messenian War (c.640-620)
    Inthe helots revolted in the 5th
    ...
    (Thuc. 1.128)
    In

    and in
    464 BC:
    ...
    1.101)
    the spartanSpartan policy towards
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    and resented theurtheir servile status
    the spartanSpartan state ritually
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    to time
    spartan

    Spartan
    armies organised
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    kept the spartansSpartans in a
    the army could not be away for long periods of time
    helots revolted in the 5th century BC
    in 464 BC the helots took the opportunity offered by the disruption that followed a major earthquake to stage a mass revolt
    the
    the Messenians sought
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    revenge on spartaSparta by aiding
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    in the peloponnesian warPeloponnesian War
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    1:19 am

Thursday, February 2

  1. page home edited ... The Fall of the Roman Republic Julius Caesar Assessment Notifications 2012 Here's a video…
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    The Fall of the Roman Republic
    Julius Caesar
    Assessment Notifications 2012
    Here's a video about a mean kitty called Sparta!
    (view changes)
    2:01 am

Sunday, December 11

  1. page R16 First Triumvirate 2 edited Fall Fall of the ... 78-31 BC - Syllabus Content - Assessment - Past Questions - Glossary…

    Fall
    Fall of the
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    78-31 BC
    - Syllabus Content - Assessment - Past Questions - Glossary of Terms - Glossary of People - Maps -
    Activities and breakdown of the First Triumvirate
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    Past HSC question: 2002
    Account for the formation and breakdown of the ‘First Triumvirate’.
    (Do this essay. Due: Tuesday 15 June - 1000 words.)
    From booklet 2:
    pp.2-9.
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    5:49 pm
  2. page R12 Pompey edited ... Past HSC question: 2006 Assess the importance of extraordinary military commands in Pompey’s …
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    Past HSC question: 2006
    Assess the importance of extraordinary military commands in Pompey’s career before the First Triumvirate.
    (Homework essay No.1. Due Monday 30 May. 1000 words.)
    Past HSC question: 2005
    Evaluate the role of Pompey as a significant military leader during this period.
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    5:39 pm

Thursday, December 8

  1. page Sparta26 edited Sparta Sparta Society to ... 371 BC - Syllabus Content - Map - Past Questions - Control …

    Sparta
    Sparta Society to
    ...
    371 BC
    - Syllabus Content - Map - Past Questions -
    Control of the helots: the military, syssitia, krypteia
    See text: p.51 The Spartan mess, Syssition; p.55 The secret police, krypteia; Helot army service for Sparta; Freed Helots, neodamodeis, Helot revolts
    HSC 2011
    (b) Outline the main features of the syssitia. (3 marks)

    Past HSC question - 2007:
    (b) What was the syssitia? (3 marks)
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    4:30 pm
  2. page SpartaPastQs edited Spartan Spartan Society to ... 371 BC - Syllabus Content - Map - Past Questions - Past H…

    Spartan
    Spartan Society to
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    371 BC
    - Syllabus Content - Map - Past Questions -
    Past HSC Questions
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    Candidates will be required to answer the question on the ancient society they have studied.
    The expected length of response will be around eight pages of an examination writing booklet (approximately 1000 words) in total.
    HSC 2011
    (a) What was the Great Rhetra? (2 marks)
    (b) Outline the main features of the syssitia. (3 marks)
    (c) Describe the role of the ekklesia. (5 marks)
    (d) With reference to Source R and other sources, what does the evidence reveal about people’s lives in this period? (15 marks)
    Source R: Xenophon, Constitution of the Spartans 6
    He [Lycurgus] even authorised them [the Spartans] to use other people’s household servants if anybody needed them. He also authorised hunting dongs to be shared, so that men who need some, ask to take them on their hunt, and the owner is pleased to send them if he is not at leisure himself.

    HSC 2010
    Question 17 — Option I – Greece: Spartan society to the Battle of Leuctra371 BC (25 marks)
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    2:27 pm

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